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Haywood County, North Carolina: Bibles, biographies, cemeteries, census, North Carolina Wills and Probate Records, includes Haywood County Haywood County Deeds (Source: USGenWeb North Carolina Archives).

She wrote in that "the custom of calling women Mrs. John This and Mrs.


Tom That and colored men Sambo and Zip Coon , is founded on the principle that white men are lords of all. The woman has no name. She is Mrs. Richard Roe or Mrs. John Doe, just whose Mrs. The feminist Jane Grant , co-founder of The New Yorker , wrote in of her efforts to keep her name despite her marriage, as well as other women's experiences with their maiden names regarding military service, passports, voting , and business. More recently, the feminist Jill Filipovic 's opposition to name change for women who marry was published in The Guardian in as "Why should married women change their names?

Let men change theirs", and cited as recommended reading on the social construction of gender in Critical Encounters in Secondary English: Teaching Literacy Theory to Adolescents by Deborah Appleman One's mother's maiden name has been a common security question in American banking since at least the s.

Spouses keep their original surnames. Following Spanish naming customs , a person's name consists of a given name simple or composite followed by two family names surnames , the father's and the mother's.

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In Spain , a reform in the law allows the parents to choose whether the father's or the mother's surname goes first, although this order must be the same for all their children. In some Spanish-American countries it is customary for women to unofficially add the husband's first surname after her own, for social purposes such as invitation letters or event announcements. Wives usually assume the family name of their spouse, although there is a recent trend of women keeping their maiden names. Any children whom a couple have together, take both second-surnames.

In Austria , since 1 April , marriage does not automatically change a woman's name; therefore a name change can only take place upon legal application.

Before that date, the default was for a married woman's name to be changed to that of her husband, unless she legally applied to opt out of this. In France , by executive decision since [56] and by law since , [57] any married person may officially use their spouse's name as a common name by substituting or compounding it to their own. Before this it was common for married women to use their husband's name in everyday life but this had no legal recognition.

From 4 March to 4 December , children given both parents' names had to have them separated by a double dash ex: Dupont--Clairemont.

In Germany , since , a woman may adopt her husband's surname or a man may adopt his wife's surname. One of them may use a name combined from both surnames. The remaining single name is the "family name" Ehename , which will be the surname of the children. If a man and woman both decide to keep and use their birth names after the wedding no combined name , they have to declare one of those names the "family name".

A combined name is not possible as a family name, but, since , it has been possible to have a double name as a family name if one already had a double name, and the partner adopts that name.

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Double names then must be hyphenated. All family members must use that double name. Since , when Greece adopted a new marriage law which guaranteed gender equality between the spouses, [61] women in Greece are required to keep their birth names for their whole life. According to the Italian Civil Code article bis , a woman who marries keeps her surname and has the option of adding her husband's surname after hers.

Non-Italian citizens getting married in Italy will not have their surname changed in Italy. However, brides or grooms can request their surname change in their home country. In the Netherlands , persons who have been married in the Netherlands or entered into a registered partnership will remain registered under their birth name. They are, however, permitted to use their partner's last name for social purposes or join both names. Upon marriage or registered partnership, one may also indicate how one would like to be addressed by registering one's choice at the Municipal Basis Administration Gemeentelijke Basis Administratie although the birth name does not change.

One may choose to be called by one's own name, one's partner's name, one's own name followed by one's partner's name hyphenated , or one's partner's name followed by their own name hyphenated. Both men and women may make this choice upon registering to get married or entering into a registered partnership. If the marriage or registered partnership ends, one may continue to use the ex-partner's last surname unless the ex-partner disagrees and requests the court to forbid the use of the ex-partner's surname.

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Before the birth or adoption of a first child, married parents may choose the child's surname mother's or father's but not both. If no choice is made, the child automatically bears the father's surname. Any further children will also go by this name. If the parents are not married, the children will automatically have their mother's name unless otherwise indicated. There is a widespread, though not universal, custom for a newly married wife to adopt the husband's family name. However, as Russia is not a common law country, any name change requires a formal procedure including an official application to the civil acts registrar.

As the same registrar also records marriages, for the convenience sake it is often done during the marriage proceedings, as governed by the Federal Law FZ "On Civil State Acts", and the couple's marriage certificate has an option of having one common family name, or both spouses going by their original surname. However, the law is entirely gender neutral, and the couple may adopt either of their surnames a husband adopting his wife's family name is an uncommon but by no means unheard-of practice, which is generally accepted and carries little to no social stigma , or even a completely different one.

The law also recognizes the couple's right to use the combined family name, and for the either of the spouses to reclaim their original surname in the case the marriage is dissolved. Traditionally, a married woman keeps her name unchanged, without adopting her husband's surname.

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This is still the norm in mainland China , though the marriage law explicitly states that a child may use either parent's surname. It is also common for two children born to the same parents to take different surnames, one after the father and the other after the mother. It is also possible, though far less common, for a child to combine both parents' surnames.

Amongst the Chinese diaspora overseas, especially in Southeast Asia, women rarely legally adopt their spouse's surname. In the Judicial system of Iran , until , it was the man who had the right to choose the surname of his family, including his wife. However, since then, all people are allowed to choose their family names, and there has been no more imposition on behalf of the husband regarding his wife's change in surname.

Traditionally, Korean women keep their family names after their marriage, but their children take the father's surname.


In the premodern, people were extremely conscious of familial values and their own family identities. Korean women keep their surnames after marriage based on traditional reasoning that it is what they inherited from their parents and ancestors. The Civil Code provides several options for married women on what surname to take upon marriage:. A woman may also keep her maiden name, as Philippine law does not require a woman to take her husband's surname at marriage. This is commonly done for professional reasons, as a woman may want to retain her name among her business contacts or audience.

The Civil Code also states that children as the result of the marriage will take the mother's middle name maiden surname and the father's surname. Married women in professional circles e. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo , Korina Sanchez-Roxas , Vilma Santos-Recto typically join their maiden and married surnames in both professional and legal use e. Isabella F. This allows them to be identified as married, and keep track of their professional achievements without being confused for being two different individual e. Isabella G. An older scheme based on Spanish naming customs add the particle de "of" between the maiden and married surnames e.

Maria Isabella Garcia de Dimaculangan or Ma. This tradition is no longer common. Taiwanese women generally keep their surnames after marriage while their children may inherit either the father's or the mother's.

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It is, however, legal to take the spouse's surname. A Thai wife who adopted her husband's surname due to the old law requiring it, can also change back to her original surname. Since , women in Turkey are allowed to keep their birth names alone for their whole life instead of using their husbands' names.